SYLLABUS
FOR
M. SC. COURSE
IN
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

FROM THE SESSION 2003 - 2004 upto 2008-2009


     ________________________________________________________________
REGULATION OF M. SC. COURSE ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF KALYANI



1. The Master degree on Environmental Science shall be open for the candidate who has passed the honours degree (with atleast 50% marks) in subjects of Biological sciences, Earth sciences, Physical sciences and allied field.
2. The candidate shall have to complete the course works, project works and also have to deliver a seminar talk preferably at the end of the academic year.
3. The selection of students for the said course will be made through admission test (written followed by oral).
4. The course will be conducted by the Department of Environmental Science, Kalyani University in collaboration with other science Departments of the University, some experts from the
other Institutions and Universities will be invited  to deliver special lectures on the selected topics as included within the framework of the course.
5. The course of studies for Master of Environmental Sciences shall be divided into two parts:
                                               Part- I to be covered in the first year and
                                               Part- II in the second year.
The details of course structure is given in the separate format. Each paper has 100 marks valuation.
6. The examination rules and other details will be same as in case of the other subjects of the University.
7. In every academic session there shall be atleast two compulsory field study trip (excursion).
8. Five percent marks will be fixed for internal assessment/seminar lectures/group discussion/ field report.




SYLLABUS FOR
MASTER IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (TWO YEARS)



M. Sc. Part -- I                                                        Full Marks - 600


Theoretical Papers :

Paper - I   
       Gr. A   : Basic of Environmental Sciences.
       Gr. B    : Environmental Biology                                 50 + 50 = 100
Paper - II 
       Gr. A    : Environmental Geology
       Gr. B    : Environmental Geography                                      50 + 50 = 100
paper - III
       Gr. A    : Environmental Chemistry
       Gr. B    : Environmental Physics                                  50 + 50 = 100
Paper - IV
       Gr. A    : Environmental Pollution and Environmental Degradation
       Gr. B     : Environmental Physiology and Toxicology                50 + 50 = 100


Practical Papers :

Paper - V     : Analytical techniques and Environmental quality & monitoring        = 75         
Paper - VI    : Field survey techniques, map preparation, survey equipment handling techniques, Air-photo and Image Analysis  = 75
Paper - VII   : Field report, Seminar lectures and Internal assessment (10+20+20)       = 50




M. Sc. Part II                                                                      Full Marks - 600

Theoretical Papers :                                                            
Paper VIII  
       Gr. A   : Environmental Engineering and Energy management           50 + 50 = 100        
       Gr. B.  : Environmental impact Assessment and Environmental Acts, Laws, Regulation treaty and Movements
Paper IX     
       Gr. A  : Environmental Economics, Resource management and conservation 
       Gr. B  :  Soil science, Remote sensing techniques and application                50 + 50 =100
Paper X      
       Gr. A :  Mathematical Ecology & Bio-statistics                                                
          Gr. B :  Human Ecology, Ecosystem design and management, Environmental planning        50 + 50 = 100

Paper XI            Special Paper(s)                                                                      =100
                   Environmental Biotechnology and Molecular toxicology                    
                                          Or
                       Geo Environmental Studies        
                                       Or
                 Environmental process monitoring and management                

Practical Papers :
Paper XII          Special paper practical                                                 =75
Paper XIII          Project / Dissertation works                                         =75
Paper XIV        General viva and Seminar lecture                                              25+25 =50
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL MARKS = 1200







PAPER - I


Gr.A :        BASIC OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (COMPULSORY)

Total no. of lectures : 40                                                        Full Marks - 50

1. Environmental Science - Concept, Global Environmental problems, Man & Environment Interactions, Environmental ethics, Earth's carrying capacity.
2. Environmental Components - atmosphere; lithosphere; hydrosphere & biosphere and their interaction, sustainability debate.
3. Populations, adaptation and resilience.
4. India's priorities towards environmental conservation & protection.
5. Resources - Land (soil), Water, Air, Biological wealth, Minerals, Fossil fuels etc.
6. Life in the physical environment.
7. Climate, Topography and the diversity of the Natural World.
8. Human impact on Environmental degradation.
9. Environmental science & technology today - Biotechnology & Chemical technology.


REFERENCES:
1. Environmental Science - Turk & Turk.
2. Environmental Permits - D. C. Rona.
3. Environmental Policy & Development Issue - C. V. Rajashekhara.
4. Environmental Chemistry - A. K. Dey.
5. Mine Environment & Management -  A. B. Choudhury.
6. Human environment - an analysis - S. K. Shukla & P. R. Srivastava.
7. Global Environment - S. K. Shukla & P. R. Srivastava.
8. Environmental Science - S. C. Santra




GR. B.        ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY (COMPULSORY)

Total no. of lectures : 40                                                                       Full Marks - 50

A. General :
Evolution of Universe, evolution of elements, origin of life and evolution of life forms; Biological response to physical and chemical agents - acute and chronic effects, immunological response to stress, metabolic changes and bio-transformation; carcinogenesis and mutagenesis, cellular injury, genetic alterations. 

B. Basic Ecology :
History and scope of ecology, evolution of biosphere, ecosystems of the world; succession process;
community build up and stability; concept of biodiversity and its importance; ecological balance; population dynamics, models for single and interacting populations; species interaction systems.

C. Forest Ecology :
Ecological values of forest, forest types of the world and India; Forest policy & management of India - past and present; social and farm forestry; Green belt development; Current state of forest protection & conservation. 

D. Wild life Ecology :
Concept of wildlife, importance of wildlife, endangered species, conservation and management of wildlife and their habitats; Institutional support systems in understanding wildlife status of this country.

E. Biomonitoring of Environmental quality :
Aquatic biota and its utility in water quality monitoring; soil biota and its utility in soil quality monitoring; plant responses to air quality and its application in bio-monitoring of air.

F. Environmental Microbiology :
Microbiology water, soil and air, bio-geo chemical cycle, importance of microbes in nutrient cycling, waste treatment, bio-fuel production; air borne microbes and allergic disorders; bio-transformation of toxic substances by microbes.


REFERENCES :
1. Ecology - P. Collinvaux.
2. Fundamentals of Ecology - E. Odum.
3. Basic Ecology - E. Odum.
4. Biophysical Ecology - R. Campbell.
5. Forest Ecology ( Vol I & II) - G. S. Puri - P. Gupta & Meher Holmji.
6. Ecology with special reference to animals and man - S. C. Kandeigh.
7. Ecological methods for field and laboratory investigation - Michael.
8. Animal physiology, Adaptation and Environment - K. Schmidt.
9. Microbiology - Pelzer & Reid.





PAPER - II


Gr. A : ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY (COMPULSORY)

Total no. of lectures : 40                                                                  Full Marks - 50

A. Basic Geology :
Composition of the earth; common rocks and minerals, major endogenic and exogenic processes; geological agents of changes of the physico-chemical environment - namely tectonics, magmatism, weathering, erosion and deposition, common geological structures such as bedding, folds, faults, thrusts, cleavage schistosity, fractures, deposits, erodibility of rock types.

B. Hydrogeology :
Hydro-geological cycle, water balance, ground water investigation techniques; water resource management; water flow hydraulics with respect to streams sub-surface water; geological, hydrological and environmental aspects of ecosystem, Artificial recharge & conjunctive use of water resource, freshwater demand management.

C. Geomorphology :
Global dynamic process, surface geological processes & forms, coastal geomorphic changes; Fluvial geomorphology.

D. Geological Hazards & Disaster Management :
Natural and man made disasters onset, forecasting, and management; Seismology, Drought mitigation, Geological perspective of ecosystem and community health hazards.    

E. Engineering Geology :
Fundamentals of engineering geology, hill slope: stability, landslide and its monitoring; geological considerations in the selections of dam sites, reservoirs & tunnels. Mining Practice and its impact. The practice of engineering geology; site investigation, initial studies, field investigation (surface & subsurface).


REFERENCES :
1. Environmental Geology - P. T. Flawan, Harper & Row Pub.
2. Environmental Geology - D. R. Coates, John Wiley & Sons.
3. Environmental Geosciences - A. V. Strahler and A. H. Strahler , Wiley International.




Gr.B. : ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY (COMPULSORY)

Total no. of lectures - 40                                                                Full Marks - 50

A. Basic Geography :
Fundamental of concept of environmental geography; man-environment relationship; man's modifications of environmental systems, environmental degradations, land-use, deforestation, agriculture, urbanization, method of environmental indices measurement systems and its limitations, societal response to environmental management.

B. Meteorology :
Earth as a planet - motions, seasons, radiation balance, thermal environment, atmospheric circulation, wind flow, windrose, scale of meterology - pressure, temp, ppt, humidity, radiation and wind, cloud formation; climate and climatic control; ocean and continental influences; Agricultural meteorology - importance of weather and climate in relation to crops, vegetation, livestock population; artificial climate; thermal balance on earth surface; Effect of climate and other associated factor on disease and metabolic disorders; Indian climate and its changes.

C. Landscape Ecology :
Concept of landscape ecology, landscape structure, dynamics, developmental processes, impact of man's activity on landscape process, landscape functions, changes in landscape with time and space, application of landscape ecological studies, evolution of landscape ecology, landscape boundaries.

D. Landuse policy & planning:
Urban & rural landuse police & planning , restoration and rehabilitation technologies, Conflict in landuse policy, Application of remote sensing in landuse study.        


REFERENCES :
1. Introduction to theoretical meteorology - S. L. Hess, Holt Rinehart & Winston, N. X.
2. Atmosphere, Weather, Climate - R. C. Barry & R. J. Chorly.
3. Environmental geomorphology and landscape conservation - B. R. Coates.
4. Landscape Ecology - T. T. Forman & M. Gordon.     
5. Geography and Man's Environment - A. H. Strahler and A. N. Strahler.
6. Environmental Sciences - Turk & Turk.




PAPER III


Gr. A : ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY (COMPULSORY)

Total no. of lectures - 40                                                                        Full Marks - 50

A. Chemistry of Environmental Components :
Lithosphere, atmosphere & hydrosphere; Chemistry of soil, air & water, Biochemical processes in environment; Chemical speciation; a brief accounts of pollution of environmental component, Laws of thermodynamics, Mass energy transfer across various interfaces.  

B. Photochemistry :
Photochemical and photosensitized reaction in the atmosphere, global climate changes and related processes.

C. Chemical Toxicology :
Toxic chemicals and their properties, the fate of toxic chemicals in environment - Metals (Pb, Hg, As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn), Gaseous( CO, O3, PAN, MIC), Pesticides and  PAHs.

D. Chemical analytical methods :
Sampling, preservation, storage and processing techniques; analytical methods; titrimetry, gravimetry, potentiometry, colorimetry, spectrophotometry, nephelometry, chromatographic techniques, electrophoresis, fluorimetry, atomic absorption spectrometry and radiometry, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Flame photometry.

E. Geochemistry :
Geochemical behavior of elements in endogenic and exogenic processes; thermodynamic aspects of trace elements during mineral formation; chemistry of waste treatment processes, trace elements.


REFERENCES :
1. Environmental Chemistry - S. E. Manahan, Villard Grant Press, USA.
2. Atmospheric Chemistry - J. Heichlen, AP. NY.
3. Aquatic Chemistry - W. Stumm and J. J. Morgan, Wiley Interscience.
4. Environmental Chemistry - A. K. Dey, Wiley Eastern Ltd., India.
5. Elements of Bioinorganic Chemistry - G. N. Mukherjee and A. Das.




Gr. B. : ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS (COMPULSORY)

Total no. of lectures - 40                                                                Full Marks - 50

A.Dynamic meterology :
Review of thermodynamic and radiation theory as applied to the atmosphere: Equation of motion for the atmosphere, tropical motion systems, numerical weather forecasting.

B. Atmospheric Physics :
Diffusion and transport of pollution in air; flux-profile relationships; Estimation of atmospheric dispersion - diffusion equations; formation mechanics, Kinetics & properties.

C. Environmental Biophysics :
Energy budget concept : radiation energy fluxes, metabolism of latent heat exchange energy, Equilibria between biotic and abiotic environmental components.

D. Bioelectronics :
Bioelectrodes - concept, preparation, application; Transducers - concept manufacture and application;
Biosensor.

E. Radiation Physics :
Radioactivity - characterisation of various rays, measurement procedures, application of radioisotopes; nuclear radiation - disposal and safety measures.

F. Techniques related to environmental Physics :
Ultrasound - characteristics, measurement and application; acoustic radar; Laser application; Environmental aspects of microwave radiation; Electrical detection of airborne particles using surface ionization techniques. Trace element detection - various methods.


REFERENCES :
1. Physics for Science and Engineering - D. Halliday and Resnick., John Wiley Publication. USA.




PAPER - IV

Gr. A : ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION (COMPULSORY)

Total no. of lectures - 40                                                                 Full Marks - 50

Environmental Pollution :

A) Air pollution :
Sources of air pollutants, behaviors and fate of pollutants photochemical smog, acid rain; transport of air pollutants and climate; effect of air pollutants on vegetation, crops, human health and monuments; status of air pollution in Indian cities; air borne biopollutants and its effect on human health; methods of air pollution control; air quality management concept.

B) Water pollution :
Sources of water pollutants, behaviours and fate of pollutants in water, eutrophication, water quality monitoring techniques and analysis of samples, Effect of water pollutants on aquatic plants & animals and man; thermal pollution of water - causes and effect; marine pollution - sources of pollutants and monitoring techniques; control methods of different water pollution; status of water pollution in different water bodies with reference to Indian context; waste-water treatment systems; water quality management concept.

C) Soil pollution :
Sources of pollutants in soil; fate and behavior of soil pollutants; Monitoring of soil quality-techniques and analysis; Effect of soil pollutants on biota, crops, vegetation and surface water and ground water regime; methods of soil pollution control; toxic and hazardous solid waste sources and their management; soil quality management concept, waste disposal & recycling technology (Fly ash, slag)

D) Noise pollution :
Sources of noise, effects of noise on human health, monitoring of noise pollution management & control; status of noise pollution in India.

E) Environmental degradation :
A: Greenhouse gases and global warming; ozone depletion and its impact on global climate; temperature inversion, El-Nino effect; Nuclear winter - concept and prediction; desertification of earth.
B: Land degradation :
Wasteland concept, genesis of wasteland and its consequences; Mapping wasteland; Management of
wasteland - problems and prospects; Concept of evaluation of environmental carrying capacity; Sustainable development and environmental upgradation in human settlement.


REFERENCES :
1. Environmental Pollution - H. M. Dix.
2. Mercury in Ecosystem - S. Mitra
3. Agriculture and Environment D. Briggs and f. Courtney.
4. Air Pollution W. Strauses and S. J. Mainwarning.
5. Lead in the Environment - Boggs and Wixen.
6. Pollution Abatement - K. M. Clayton.
7. Environmental pollution control - Attan Macknight.
8. Noise pollution - H. C. Roberts.
9. Principles of water pollution control -R. F. Gould.
10. Sulfur in the Ecosystem - J. O. Nriagn.
11. Waste water Treatment - M. N. Rao and A. K. Dutta.




Gr. B. : ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY (COMPULSORY)

Total no. lectures - 40                                                                 Full Marks - 50

A. Plant physiology :
Plant responses to water, salt and temperature stress; Circadian rhythm and biological clock; physiology of growth, reproduction and adaptation, sensory modalities and chemical coordination.

B. Animal Physiology :
Animal responses to environmental stress; physiology of growth reproduction and adaptation, sensory
processes and neural development.

C. Ecotoxicology :
Principle of Toxicology, dose-response relationship; statistical concept of LD50, LC50; chemical and biological factors that influences toxicity, bioassay methods using plant and animal model; Ecosystem & interaction; bio-accumulation and bio-magnification of toxicants in ecosystem; bio-active substances and their significance in the ecosystem.

D. Environmental and occupational Health :
Basic concept of environmental health, physiological responses of man to relevant stresses in the environment; Industrial toxicology and its relationship with occupation and hygiene and diseases; epidemiological assessment techniques (Arsenicosis & Fluorosis), hazard-risk evaluation and management.


REFERENCES :
1. Introduction to General Toxicology - Arians E. J. , A. M. Simons & j. Offenmier, !976 AP.
2. Ecotoxicology - F. Moriarty.
3. Introduction to Environmental Toxicology - Perry, G. Elsavier, 1980.
4. Guideslines for Analytical Toxicology Progress, Vol 1&2, CRC Press, 1977.





PAPER - V


ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY  MONITORING

PRACTICAL :                
                                                       
Total no. of classes : 60                                                                   Full Marks - 75

1. Handling of instruments viz., Colorimeter, Spectrophotometer, pH meter, Conductivity bridge, Microscope etc.
2. Physicochemical analysis of water & waste water parameters;
3. Physicochemical analysis of soil / solid waste materials;
4. Analysis of air quality parameter - chemical and biological;
5. Noise monitoring techniques;
6. Bioassay methods;
7. Field sampling methods;
8. Model EIA reporting based on field survey (tour to a project site).





PAPER - VI

FIELD SURVEY TECHNIQUES AND MAP PREPARATION        

PRACTICAL :                                                
               
Total No. of classes : 60                                                                      Full Marks - 75

1. Field survey techniques;
2. Handling of meteorological data recording equipment;
3. Toposheet interpretation & preparation or updating on the basis if field survey;
4. Landuse mapping;
5. Slope gradient measurement;
6. Drainage pattern assessment;
7. Thematic mapping;
8. Air-photo study and interpretation.


REFERENCES :
1. APHA (1992) : Standard method for analysis of water and waste water.
2. Jackson, S. 1959. The chemical analysis of soil.




PAPER - VII

Full Marks - 50

Field report
Seminar lecture
Internal assessment













                                               
PAPER - VIII


Gr. A :        ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY FOR POLLUTION CONTROL, ENERGY MANAGEMENT(COMPULSORY)

Total No. of lectures : 40                                                                 Full Marks - 50

Environmental Technology for Pollution control :
Principles of pollution abatement - concept of clean environment, basis and necessity for standards, non-point and point pollution sources; problems, views of public, industrialists, technologists and govt. on problems of pollution; National and international aspects of pollution abatement. Standards of various environmental parameters and industrial discharges. Air pollution abatement strategies - use of technological devices & green belt development; water pollution abatement strategies - use of waste water treatment technologies; biotreatment technology; solid waste of toxic chemicals and radioactive substances; pollution abatement and public participation - cleaning rivers like Thames and Ganges; Global environmental monitoring system; Concept of green technology and their application of cleaning water pollution - some case studies. .
Energy Management : Energy resources and its interrelation with environment; conventional and non-conventional energy sources - estimate of current exploitation and future planning; Eco-friendly energy planning, energy audit, future planning of energy development on sustainable basis.



Gr. B : ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL ACTS, LAWS,TREATY, REGULATIONS AND MOVEMENTS (COMPULSORY).

Total No. of lectures : 40                                                                  Full Marks -50

Environmental Impact Assessment :
Concept & scope of EIA, principle and salient features, EIA processes, methodologies, MOEF guidelines; Basic steps of overall appraisal of development projects - base line date collection & generation from the field; Identification & prediction of impacts of development project; Evaluation of impacts - different methods (checklist, adhoc, overlays, matrix, network and Battle Environmental Evaluation Systems); preparation Environmental & Management plan (EMP) for mitigation; Environmental impact statement; post project monitoring and Environmental. Audit System; some case studies of EIA/EMP and environmental auditing system.

Environmental laws, treaty, regulation and movements :
Environmental protection - issues and problems; statutory requirement for environmental clearance from state and central government of any developmental projects; concept of environmental laws, pollution control acts, rules, notifications in India, UK, USA and other countries; Environmental policy resolution, Legislations, Public policy strategies in pollution control. Wildlife protection Act 1972, The water (Prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1974; Forest Conservation Act 1980, Air (Prevention and control of pollution) 1988; The Environmental  (Protection) Act, 1986; Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991. Sanction and enforcement bodies of environmental laws - roles of Supreme Court and Green Bench of High Court on environmental protection in India; National Environmental policy; public awareness and participation in environmental protection movement in the worlds and India, International treaty, global and national environmental summits. Role of NGOs in environmental protection in India and other countries; National environmental movements - Salient Valley movement, Chipko movement, Narmada movement, Appiko movement, Tehri & Garwal Dam movement, Uttar Kanda movement and Almatti dispute; Human resource manpower development and environmental education system in India and other countries.




PAPER - IX


Gr. A : ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND     CONSERVATION (COMPULSORY)

Total No. of lectures : 40                                                                  Full Marks - 50

Environmental Economics : 
Concept of Environmental economics, the economy and the environment - cost effectiveness analysis, cost benefits analysis; natural resource economics; analytical tools - benefits and costs - supply & demand; The economics of environmental quality; Environmental analysis of cost - benefit case studies; Environmental policy analysis - criteria for evaluation, decentralisation policies, command and control strategies and incentive-based strategies; environmental policies in other industrialised countries; Economic valuation techniques of environmental benefits - market place approach, incorporation of environmental costs and benefits in project design and appraisal - case studies.

Resource management and conservation : 
Concept of resources, exploitation ways, status of resources of diverse categories in the World and India; resource survey techniques; resource management and conservation - principle and ways; Eco-development and planning of natural resource conservation; Global, National and Regional conservation strategies, conservation of gene reserves; bio-reserve and wildlife conservation strategies; natural by products from agricultural and domestic sources and their utilisation; re-cycling and reuse of wastes bio-gas and bio-mass technology, Sustainable development & natural resource conservation.


Gr. B :  SOIL SCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING (COMPULSORY)

Total No. of lectures :  40                                                                  Full Marks - 50

Soil Sciences :
Origin, nature and classification of parent materials; soil formation, classification and survey; physical properties of soil minerals; soil water characteristics & behaviours, soil air, soil temperature, soil colloids, soil reaction, soil organisms, soil organic matter, nitrogen & sulfur economy of the soil, soil phosphorus and potassium and micronutrients; losses of soil moisture and their regulation, soil erosion and control; fertilizer management, nutrient recycling, soil pollution; soil and world food supply.

Remote sensing techniques and applications :
Principles and concept of remote sensing, properties of electromagnetic radiations and their importance in different type remote sensing; Development of remote sensing techniques with time and space; Instruments for remote sensing (visible, IR and microwave regions), air-borne geophysical instruments, magnetic systems; Description of different types of satellite systems and their efficiency (Landsats, Spot, IRS, NOAA). Spectroscopy and air photo interpretations, image data aquisition, processing and analysis; Visible range image interpretation, Thermal imaging, Radar imaging and Microwave imaging. Application of remote sensing techniques in geology, geomorphology, vegetation studies, atmospheric studies, biospheric survey, environmental studies, oceanography and hydrospheric survey, GIS - concept and application.




PAPER - X


Gr. A.  MATHEMATICAL ECOLOGY AND BIOSTATISTICS (COMPULSORY)

Total No. of lectures :  40                                                                  Full Marks - 50

A.  Mathematical Ecology :
Models of population growth, deterministic models, nonlinear relationships; different equation models; Interacting population: Lotka-Voltera model, prey-predator system; Multispecies ecosystem and communities - energy flow model; elementary aspects of systems analysis for ecosystems.

B.   Biostatistics :
Primary and secondary data collection, graphical representation, measure of dispersion range, measure of skewness, theory of sampling population, theory of testing hypothesis, correlation and regression analysis, analysis of variance, analysis of principal components.

C. Computer Application :
Introduction to simple programmable computers.



Gr. B. HUMAN ECOLOGY : ECOSYSTEM DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING (COMPULSORY)

Total No. of lectures : 50                                                                  Full Marks - 50

Human ecology :
Environment, Man and Society - Social / Scientific perspective on the interface, Ecological crisis: Methodological roots - Man's domination over nature; Sciences, progress, Technology and industrialism. Critique of economic growth. Environment as common heritage and future of mankind. Rejection of de-humanized development-sustainability, Equity and justice as core values - Diversity of nature and livelihoods. Green movement - its response to main stream ecological ethics. Evolution of man, population growth, growth of civilization and social structures; impact of major human activities on environmental intensification; transportation, industrialization & tourism; changing nutrition, life style, social behavior and socio-biological aspects of modern society; human health population impact on epidemiology.

Ecosystem design and management :
Ecosystem concept, energetics in ecosystem, productivity, homeostasis, cybernetics; components of different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; conservation & management of different ecosystems..

Environmental planning:
Concept, perspective, legal and administrative framework, Landscape ecology and urban ecological planning.




PAPER - XI


ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY (SPECIAL PAPER)

Total No. of lectures : 80                                                        Full Marks - 100

Gr. A.
1.        Concept of Environmental biotechnology, broad outlines of various application areas - waste treatment, biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds, hydrocarbon degradation, biofuel production, biofertilizer, biopesticides production, bioleaching and other areas.
2.        Bioremediation: Concept, role of bioremediation in controlling various pollution problems - solid water, sewage water, industrial effluents, heavy metals, radioactive substances, oil spillage etc.
3.        Phytoremediation: Abatement of different types of pollution using plants, types of phytoremediation, mechanism involved with case studies.
4.        Alternate fuels: source and mechanism of various biofuel production.
5.        Integrated pest management, concept, technology involved in agriculture & forestry, Biopesticides application potential.
6.        Biocomposting - microbial process involvement, vermin composting.
7.        Recombinant DNA technology & its application in strain improvement.



Gr. B.
1.  Ecotoxicology: Environmental monitoring, impact assessment using bioindicator species.
2.        Biomarkers & its application in biomonitoring
3.        Hazard identification and assessment, risk prediction
4.        Macromolecule immobilization - Concept, preparation process, application in assessment environmental quality, Biosensor based detection of environmental contaminants.
5.        Allergy & Human health: Aeroallergen, pollinosis and human health problems.
6.        Forensic toxicology: Drug abuse and poisoning; clinical symptoms of poisoning, food poisoing, industrial accidents & forensic investigation.
7.        Molecular mechanism of subacute drug effects and potentive measures - metalloproteins & enzyme functions.
8.        Molecular mechanism of detoxification processes in-vitro & in-vovo.
9.        Toxic chemicals & their effects (Carcinogenecity, mutagenecity, teratogenecity).




PAPER - XI


GEOENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

Total No. of lectures : 80                                                                 Full Marks - 100

Gr. A.
*Systems, Man and Environmental - Basic concept, systems, man-environment systems and models, closed system model.
*Environmental systems as energy systems - energy relationships, Atmospheric systems, Energy balance of the earth - atmospheric system, Environmental system as open system.
*Earth surface system - lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere.
*Lithosphere - The crustal system, system structure, the crustal system, transfer of matter and energy.
*Hydrosphere - hydrology cycles, water balance, fluvial system, energy and mass transfer, channel dynamics, watershed, runoff processes.
*Atmosphere - Structure of the atmospheric system, transfer of energy and mass in the atmospheric system, primary circulation system, General circulation model, Linkages between atmospheric systems, water in the earth - atmosphere system.
*System and change - change in environmental systems, Equilibrium concept and natural systems, Thermodynamics, Equilibrium and change, Manifestation of change.
*Change in physical system - change in climatic systems, Feedback mechanism, The form of change, Economic and Social dimension of climatic change.
*Man's modification of environmental systems - Landuse, changes in landuse, Landuse types, Landuse and landscape Ecology.
*Urbanisation and industrialisation - Urban Environmental systems, changes in Urban environment, physical systems and urban environment.
*Control of environmental systems by man - flood, drought.

Gr. B.
*Common rock-forming minerals - their composition and identifying characteristics.
*Geochemistry of weathering of the common rock in the exogenic cycles.
*Present day deposition in lakes, reservoir and river basins and effect on the environment.
*Natural hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, volcanism, floods - their causes, effects and possible predictions.
*Structural analysis for engineering geology projects, such as human settlement and road construction on hilly regions, construction of dams, reservoir and tunnels.
*Opencast and underground mining, Environmental degradation due to mining and its monitoring and restorations.



PAPER - X


ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESS MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT (SPECIAL PAPER)

Total No. of lectures : 80                                                                Full Marks - 100

Gr. A.
A) Atmospheric Chemistry :
Composition and major regions of the atmosphere; photochemical reaction in the atmosphere. Reaction of Sox, Nox, O3 and hydrocarbons in the atmosphere; Temperature inversion, Green house gases and global warming; problem of ozone depletion.

B) Chemistry of hydrosphere  :
Hydrologic cycle; zonation of aquatic environment - lakes, river and estuary; availability and temperature regions; complexion in natural water and sediments; speciation of heavy metals, Environmental cycles of calcium, copper and mercury.

C) Soil pollution :
Sources of pollutants in soil, agro-chemicals (pesticides, fungicides etc.) - their properties and fate in the environment. physico-chemical and microbial degradation of pesticides in soil.

D) Chemical Toxicology :
Toxicity; Concept of LD50; Dose - response relationship; Biochemical effects of toxic chemicals like Pb, Hg, As, Cd, Cr, DDT, malathion and carbonyl insecticides; Biosensor and its application.


Gr. B :

A) Sewage and sewage sludge treatment :
Objectives of sewage treatment; Composition of sewage; Sewage treatment process - primery, secondary and tertiary treatment;  Sludge treatment & disposal.

B) Treatment of toxic wastes:
Radioactive, Biomedical waste -Toxicity problems in the collection system; pre-treatment of toxic wastes; primary and secondary treatment; Disposal of toxic wastes;
Industrial waste treatment - case studies, Cement, Steel, Leather, Electroplating, Thermal power plant, Pharmaceutical.

C) Emission control for automobiles
Modification of internal combustion engine, Exhaust emission from motor vehicles; Use of catalyst for emission control; Automobile standards; Air quality standards; Compressed natural gas; Advanced emission control technology.

D) Radioactive substances  in Environment :
Radiation and radioactivity: Biological effects of radiation; Radiation Hazards and Protective measures, Radioisotopes of biological importance.




PAPER - XII


ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY (PRACTICAL - SPECIAL PAPER)

Full Marks - 75

Exercises :

1. Studies on planktonic diversity of lakes, reservoir and rivers.
2. Studies on diversity of soil flora and fauna.
3. Studies on the atmospheric load of air bio-pollutants (fungi and bacteria).
4. Microbial assessment of water quality.
5. Assay of toxicity by algal tests, Allium test, and fish test.
6. Experiments on removal of pollution load of waste water by macrophytes.
7. Enzymatic assay of water quality in lakes.
8. Assay of stress metabolites of plant pollution in diverse habitats.
9. Studies on heavy metal toxicity by germination and seedling growth tests.
10. Studies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of toxicants.
11. Studies on plant density, diversity, abundance and frequency in given forest population.
12. Isolation and characterisation of nitrogen fixing bacteria from soil and plant part of normal and saline & alkaline soil.
13. Analysis of pesticide effects on soil microbes.
14. Measurement of polyphenols in plant tissue.
15. Isolation and measurement of DNA and RNA.




PAPER - XII


GEOENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (SPECIAL PAPER - PRACTICAL)

Exercises:                                                                              Full Marks - 75

Gr. A:
1. Studies on map types - planimatric, topographic & thematic.
2. studies on utility of planimetric, topographic & thematic maps.
3. Studies on technique of local, regional and global mapping.
4. Studies on cartographic scale.
5. Studies on topographic maps.
6. Studies on landuse and landcover mapping from remote sensing data.
7. Studies on land information system by Geographic Information System.
8. Studies on model development on land pattern - multivariate statistical analysis, factorial analysis.
9. Studies on spatial entropy of landuse.
10. Studies on order-disorder in landscape.
11. Hand specimen studies of minerals & rocks.
12. Analysis of recent sediments (organic-inorganic contents, grain size analysis and minerological studies) and action precipitates (ducts).
13. Interpretation of geological maps and preparation of geology related thematic maps.




PAPER - XII


ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEM MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT (SPECIAL PAPER - PRACTICAL)

                                                                       Full Marks - 75

Exercises :

1. Chromatography : paper, thin layer and gas liquid chromatography -application.
2. Centrification : Application.
3. Spectrophotometry : Spectrophotometric analysis of organic and in-organic substances.
4. Flame photometry : Application of flame photometry in estimation of metals namely K, Na, Ca.
5. G. M. counter : Application for radio-activity detection (demonstration).
6. Remote sensing : Digital image processing & interpretation.
7. Electrophoresis : Protein separation technique.
8. Assay of degradative enzymes.
9. Toxicological assay techniques.
10. Data analysis



PAPER XIII

Full Marks - 75
Project and dissertation work                                                



PAPER XIV

Full Marks - 50
General viva and seminar lecturer.

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